### Economics questions

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Q1: Ch 4 (20%) The director of marketing at Vanguard Corporation believes that sales of the company’s Bright Side laundry detergent (S) are related to Vanguard’s own advertising expenditure (A), as well as the combined advertising expenditures of its three biggest rival detergents (R). The marketing director collects 36 weekly observations on S, A, and R to estimate the following multiple regression equation: S = a + bA + cR where S, A, and R are measured in dollars per week. Vanguard’s marketing director is comfortable using parameter estimates that are statistically significant at the 0.05 level or better. The regression output from the computer is as follows: DEPENDENT VARIABLE: S R- SQUARE F- RATIO P- VALUE ON F OBSERVATIONS: 36 0.2964 4.781 0.0150 PARAMETER STANDARD VARIABLE ESTIMATE ERROR T- RATIO P- VALUE INTERCEPT 175086.0 63821.0 2.74 0.0098 A 0.4550 0.3250 2.63 0.0128 R −0.284 0.164 −1.73 0.0927 a. Does Vanguard’s advertising expenditure have a statistically significant effect on the sales of Bright Side detergent? Explain, using the appropriate p-value. b. Does advertising by its three largest rivals affect sales of Bright Side detergent in a statistically significant way? Explain, using the appropriate p-value. c. What fraction of the total variation in sales of Bright Side remains unexplained (undetermined)? What other explanatory variables might be added to this equation? d. What is the expected level of sales each week when Vanguard spends $20,000 per week and the combined advertising expenditures for the three rivals are $300,000 per week? Q2: Ch 5 (10%) Bridget has a limited income and consumes only wine and cheese; her current consumption choice is four bottles of wine and 10 pounds of cheese. The price of wine is $10 per bottle, and the price of cheese is $4 per pound. The last bottle of wine added 50 units to Bridget’s utility, while the last pound of cheese added 40 units. Dr. C. Chen a. Is Bridget making the utility- maximizing choice? Why or why not? b. If not, what should she do instead? Why? Q3: Ch 5 (10%) Assume that Andy consumes two goods X and Y. His total utility (assumed measurable) of each good is independent of the rate of consumption of other goods. The prices of X and Y are, respectively, $5 and $10. Units of the Good Total Utility of X Total Utility of Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 50 95 135 170 200 225 245 260 400 750 950 1100 1220 1320 1400 1450 a. If Andy is given $65 to spend, how many X and Y will he consume daily? Show your work. b. If his budget increases to $110, what combination will the person consume? Show your work. Q4: Ch 5 (10%) In terms of the consumer theory set forth in this chapter, can you explain the meaning of the following statements? a. “I wanted to buy a Boxster rather than a Malibu, but it just wasn’t worth it.” b. “I’d like to go to Mexico over spring break, but I just can’t afford it,” said Don. Jill asked, “Don’t you have enough money in your account?” Don replied, “Yeah, but I can’t afford to go.” Q5: Ch 6 (20%) Assume that the demand for plastic (cosmetic) surgery is price inelastic. Are the following statements true or false? Explain. a. When the price of plastic surgery increases, the number of operations decreases. b. The percentage change in the price of plastic surgery is less than the percentage change in quantity demanded. c. Changes in the price of plastic surgery will affect the number of operations slightly. d. Quantity demanded is quite responsive to changes in price. Q6: Ch 6 (10%) The price elasticity of demand for imported whiskey is estimated to be −0.20 over a wide interval of prices. The federal government decides to raise the import tariff on foreign whiskey, causing its price to rise by 30 percent. Dr. C. Chen a. Will the quantity demanded on imported whiskey rise or fall, and by what percentage amount? b. What is the percentage change in the total revenue after the tariff increases? Q7: CH 7 (20%) Wilpen Company, a price- setting firm, produces nearly 80 percent of all tennis balls purchased in the United States. Wilpen estimates the U. S. demand for its tennis balls by using the following linear specification: Q = a + bP + cM + dPR where Q is the number of cans of tennis balls sold quarterly, P is the wholesale price Wilpen charges for a can of tennis balls, M is the consumers’ average household in-come, and PR is the average price of tennis rackets. The regression results are as follows: DEPENDENT VARIABLE: Q R- SQUARE F- RATIO P- VALUE ON F OBSERVATIONS: 20 0.8435 28.75 0.001 PARAMETER STANDARD VARIABLE ESTIMATE ERROR T- RATIO P- VALUE INTERCEPT 355120.0 220300.0 1.93 0.0716 P −37260.6 12587 −22.96 0.0093 M 1.49 0.3651 4.08 0.0009 PR −1456.0 460.75 −3.16 0.0060 a. Discuss the statistical significance of the parameter estimates b, c, and d using the pvalues. Given the signs of c and d, please comment on the good category of tennis ball and its relationship with tennis rackets. Wilpen plans to charge a wholesale price of $1.65 per can. The average price of a tennis racket is $110, and consumers’ average household income is $24,600. b. What is the estimated number of cans of tennis balls demanded? c. At the values of P, M, and PR given, what are the estimated values of the price (E), income (EM), and cross- price elasticities (EXR) of demand? Round to hundredth. d. What will happen, in percentage terms, to the number of cans of tennis balls demanded if the average price of tennis rackets increases 25 percent?

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